Notes

  1. Burrell 2006, p. 83. Burrell talks about how many historians have overestimated the number Japanese defenders, with 20,000 and even 25,000 listed. Burrell puts the range between 18,060 and 18,600, with exactly 216 of these taken prisoner during the course of the battle. Another 867 prisoners were taken by the U.S. Army between April and June, after the Marines had left.
  2. Taki, THE HISTORY OF BATTLES OF IMPERIAL JAPANESE TANKS.
  3. B. L. Crumley, “The Marine Corps: Three Centuries of Glory”, Jan 19, 2013. The total breaks down as follows: 361 artillery pieces of 75 mm caliber or larger, 12 320 mm spigot mortars, 65 medium and light mortars, 33 naval guns, 94 anti-aircraft guns of 75 mm or larger, 200+ anti-aircraft guns of 20 mm or 25 mm, and 69 37 mm or 47 mm anti-tank guns.
  4. Morison, Samuel Eliot (2002) [1960]. Victory in the Pacific, 1945. Volume 14 of History of United States Naval Operations in World War II. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-07065-8. OCLC 49784806.
  5. John Toland, The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire, 1936–1945, page 669
  6. Jump up to: a b Pratt, William V. (2 April 1945). “What Makes Iwo Jima Worth the Price”. Newsweek. p. 36.
  7. “John Clements Collection”. loc.gov.
  8. Letters from Iwo Jima”. World War II Multimedia Database.
  9. “Battle of Iwo Jima—Japanese Defense”. World War II Naval Strategy.
  10. Video: Carriers Hit Tokyo! 1945/03/19 (1945). Universal Newsreel. 19 March 1945. Retrieved 22 February 2012.
  11. O’Brien, Cyril J. “Iwo Jima Retrospective”. Archived from the original on 7 June 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2007.
  12. John Toland, Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire 1936–1945, page 669
  13. Adrian R. Lewis, The American Culture of War: The History of U.S. Military Force from World War II to Operation Iraqi Freedom, New York 2007, p. 59
  14. Landsberg, Mitchell (1995). “Fifty Years Later, Iwo Jima Photographer Fights His Own Battle”. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 5 September 2007. Retrieved 11 September 2007.
  15. USA, FEC, HistDiv, “Operations in the Central Pacific” – Japanese Studies in World War II (Japanese Monograph No. 48, OCMH), p. 62.; cited in George W. Garand and Truman R. Strobridge (1971). History of U.S. Marine Corps Operations in World War II. Historical Branch, G-3 Division, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps. Vol IV, Part VI, Ch 1.
  16. History of Imperial General Headquarters Army Section, p. 257
  17. “Chronology of the Battle of Iwo Jima”.
  18. Wright, Iwo Jima 1945: The Marines Raise the Flag on Mount Suribachi, p. 22
  19. Wright, Iwo Jima 1945: The Marines Raise the Flag on Mount Suribachi, pp. 22-23
  20. “Naval Gunfire”. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  21. J”United States Marine Corps War Memorial”. The George Washington University. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  22. Wright, Iwo Jima 1945: The Marines Raise the Flag on Mount Suribachi, pp. 12-13, pp. 80-81
  23. Jump up ^ “Amphibious Operations: Capture of Iwo Jima”. Naval History and Heritage Command. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
  24. Wright, Iwo Jima 1945: The Marines Raise the Flag on Mount Suribachi, p. 23
  25. Wright, Iwo Jima 1945: The Marines Raise the Flag on Mount Suribachi, p. 26
  26. Allen, Robert E. (2004). The First Battalion of the 28th Marines on Iwo Jima: A Day-by-Day History from Personal Accounts and Official Reports, with Complete Muster Rolls. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Company. ISBN 0-7864-0560-0. OCLC 41157682.
  27. Iwo Jima 1945: The Marines Raise the Flag on Mount Suribachi, pp. 26-27
  28. Leckie, The Battle for Iwo Jima, p. 28
  29. Wright, Iwo Jima 1945: The Marines Raise the Flag on Mount Suribachi, p. 27
  30. http://www.thestate.com/news/local/military/article14335403.html
  31. Leckie, The Battle for Iwo Jima, p. 25
  32. Wright, Iwo Jima 1945: The Marines Raise the Flag on Mount Suribachi, p. 32
  33. Leckie, The Battle for Iwo Jima, pp. 29-31
  34. Wright, Iwo Jima 1945: The Marines Raise the Flag on Mount Suribachi, pp. 30-31
  35. Wright, Iwo Jima 1945: The Marines Raise the Flag on Mount Suribachi, p. 31
  36. Wright, Iwo Jima 1945: The Marines Raise the Flag on Mount Suribachi, p. 33
  37. USMC Statement on Marine Corps Flag Raisers, Office of U.S. Marine Corps Communication, 23 June 2016
  38. “Charles Lindberg, 86; Marine helped raise first U.S. flag over Iwo Jima”. The Los Angeles Times. 26 June 2007. p. B8. Retrieved 30 November 2008.
  39. Keith Wheeler, THE ROAD TO TOKYO, Time-Life Books, 1979, Alexandria, Virginia, p.50
  40. Robert Leckie, Delivered from Evil, Harper & Row, 1987, New York, p. 870
  41. Robert Leckie, p. 871
  42. Robert Leckie, p. 872
  43. Keith Wheeler
  44. “Operation Detachment: The Battle for Iwo Jima February – March 1945”. historyofwar.org.
  45. Moskin, pp. 372–373
  46. Moskin, p. 373
  47. Bernard C. Nalt. “THE RIGHT TO FIGHT: African-American Marines in World War II:Peleliu and Iwo Jima”. Archived from the original on 11 February 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2009.
  48. https://theamericanwarrior.com/2015/12/06/the-curious-case-of-the-ohio-national-guards-147th-infantry/
  49. “Flamethrower”. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  50. “The Flame Thrower in the Pacific: Marianas to Okinawa”. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  51. Toland, John (2003) [1970]. The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire 1936–1945. New York: Modern Library. p. 732. ISBN 0812968581. OCLC 105915.
  52. “Japanese Surrender After Four Year Hiding”. Pacific Stars and Stripes. 10 January 1949. p. 5.[dead link]
  53. Cook, Donald. “Capture of Two Holdouts January 6, 1949”. No Surrender: Japanese Holdouts. Archived from the original on 9 October 2007. Retrieved 11 September 2007.
  54. “Battle for Iwo Jima, 1945”. Navy Department Library. 19 October 2006. Archived from the original on 6 December 2006. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
  55. “This Month in History: Selected March Dates of Marine Corps Historical Significance”. United States Marine Corps History Division. Archived from the original on 28 November 2010. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
  56. “The Battle of Iwo Jima”. History Department at the University of San Diego. Retrieved 10 March 2010.
  57. See Robert S. Burrell, “Breaking the cycle of Iwo Jima mythology: a strategic study of Operation Detachment.” Journal of Military History (2004) 68#4 pp: 1143-1186.
  58. John Keegan, THE SECOND WORLD WAR, Penguin books, 1989, p.566
  59. John Keegan, p.575
  60. Assistant Chief of Air Staff (September–October 1945). “Iwo, B-29 Haven and Fighter Springboard”. Impact. pp. 69–71.
  61. Craven, Wesley Frank; James Lea Cate (1953). The Army Air Forces in World War II. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 5:581–82. ISBN 0-226-11995-5. OCLC 704158.
  62. Craven and Cate, 5:559.
  63. Newcomb, Richard F. (2002). Iwo Jima. Holt Paperbacks. p. 59. ISBN 0-8050-7071-0.
  64. Joint War Planning Committee 306/1, “Plan for the Seizure of Rota Island,” 25 January 1945.
  65. “Iwo To Japan”. 506th Fighter Group. Archived from the original on 8 February 2010. Retrieved 10 March 2010.
  66. Moskin, J.Robert (1992). The U.S. Marine Corps Story (3rd Revised ed.). Little, Brown and Company. p. 373. ISBN 0-448-22688-X.
  67. Burrell, Robert S. (October 2004). “Breaking the Cycle of Iwo Jima Mythology: A Strategic Study of Operation Detachment”. The Journal of Military History 68 (4): 1143–1186. doi:10.1353/jmh.2004.0175. OCLC 37032245.
  68. “The Ghosts of Iwo Jima”. Texas A&M University Press. 2006. Retrieved 14 July 2007.
  69. “United States Army Center of Military History Medal of Honor Citations Archive”. Medal Of Honor Statistics. United States Army Center of Military History. 16 July 2007. Retrieved 6 March 2008.
  70. Jeanette Steele (13 March 2014). “Iwo Jima: A veteran returns”. UT San Diego. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
  71. Reunion of Honor Memorial Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  72. Blumenstein, LCpl Richard; Sgt. Ethan E. Rocke (October–December 2007). “From Black Sands to Suribachi’s Summit: Marines Reflect on Historic Battle”. Marines Magazine (United States Marine Corps). Retrieved 18 December 2008.
  73. See: File:IwoJima Homage Insignia Devices.jpg
  74. “The General Laws of Massachusetts—Declaration of Iwo Jima Day”. Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Archived from the original on 5 March 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
  75. Kyodo News, “Map of Iwojima’s underground bunkers found in U.S.”, Japan Times, 6 May 2012, p. 2.
  76. “Outsider (1961)”. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2 January 2008.